Albert J. Hofeldt, MD while at Columbia University in NYC published in J CATARACT REFRACT SURG VOL 22, APRIL 1996 the first description of the potential acuity pinhole technique to measure the potential ability of the retina to see in patients with reduced vision. He outlined 3 important  requirements for testing  potential  vision: 1. Bright reading  chart to penetrate the cataract or cloudy  media, 2. Correct  visual  angle  of the  chart (letter size) and 3. A pinhole to achieve nearly universal focus.  Over the past 27 years many patients have  benefited from knowing what visual acuity can be  expected from cataract or retinal surgery.  Incorrect operations have been prevented by learning  what is  responsible for the vision loss, Retina, Cataract or both.  The technique is patented and marketed under  the Trademark, RAM (retinal Acuity Meter).  No other potential vision test has been clinically proven to consistently predict accurate results.  Melki et al. reported in Ophthalmology in 1999 a technique titled "Potential Acuity Pinhole" which is the technique described by Hofeldt in 1996 for those not having access to a RAM as noted in above article.  See other published data.  Hofeldt and Weiss