1. Hofeldt, TS, Hofeldt, AJ.: BJO 1999
Topic: "Color Rivalry with Brightness Measurement"
24 Amblyopes 0.3 to 1.8 log defects
Amblyopic defect related to vision loss, p<0.0001
2. Gise, R Kane SA.: ARVO Paper #3819, 2016
Topic: "iPad Rivalrous Program in Amblyopia"
16 Amblyopes, all detected
16 Normal subjects, no false positive
The depth of Amblyopic defect and lines of acuity disparity were highly correlated. (r=0.85, p<0.0001)
3. Kane SA.: 2016, Unpublished to date.
Topic: "iPad Screening Program for Amblyopia"
211 students studied, Ages 3 to 14 years of age
Of the 210 children tested, there are 208 true negative, 2 true positives, zero false negative, and zero false positive. The true positives are (1) an 8 year old undergoing treatment for amblyopia with current acuities of 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS and (2) one amblyope was detected, a 10 year old having 20/20 OD and 20/40 OS. Of the true negatives, one child is a successfully treated amblyope having 20/20 vision in each eye; repeated inter-ocular brightness test results are 0.3 OD defect, 0.3 OS defect, and zero defect. The sensitivity is 100% for detecting amblyopia in the 210 children. A 4-year-old child who did not understand brightness could not tested.
4. Kane, SA iPad Screening of Elementary School Students with the DiagnosticGame app, 2017, active IRB study
COLOR VISION (289 TESTED)
Comparison to HRR AO PLATES
4 Abnormal both methods (Red-Green Deficiency)
285 Normal both methods
STEREOPSIS (27 TESTED)
Comparison to Titmus
The P-Value is 0.000179
The result is significant at p < 0.05.